There are some conclusion about this chapter: “The role of context in comprehension and learning”.
There are 3 specific focuses on languange proficiency. They are:
1. Content / context.
However, we gonna discuse only point 1, the content / context.
Each students must able to have more comprehension the context of languange that they learn. It’s most depend on their previous knowledge which they posses before. It’s called Schema Theory. The theory that have ever written in the firt chapter which is mentioned by Ausebel. It defines as background knowledge that have been possesed by learner in comprehension context process.
The proses of this concept is devided into 2 part:
1. Buttom-Up; Previous knowledge of content has possessed by learners and it helps them in comprehending.
2. Top-down; giving a stimulus as previous knowledge before learners focus on a context.
There are 2 concepts of Schema Theory:
1. Content Schema; Backgroud of knowledge and expectation.
2. Formal schema; knowledge of rhetorical structure.
According to Ausebel, learners will easily having deep comprehension based on their knowledge before which is related to the topic or object the learn. The theory also deal with Advance Organizer which is Ausebel concern.
Advance Organizer is an effort in managing way to convey message from context by encouraging cognitive structure of learners. This advance of organizer is supported by some researcher such as Branford and Johnson, and also Omagio.
Branson and Johnson conducted the research by dividing 5 groups to find out whether picture (visual organizer) has benefit and help for learning in comprehension a context.
There are 5 groups in different treatment:
1. Group 1 was given listening of a passage without picture.
2. Group 2 was given visual support before listening the passage.
3. Group 3 was given listening the passage first then saw the appropriate picture.
4. Group 4 was shown the rearrange picture before listening the passage. 5. Group 5 was listened the passage twice without given visual support.
The result is group 2 has more signicanly got high score twice more than other group. Thus, to get more comprehension in context is by avoiding ambiguity through previous knowledge that is possesed by learners.
Beside that, Omma conducted the research by finding out the effetive of using picture in comprehension context as well. He did the similar reaserch. However, he gave reading text instead of listening to each groups. The result was support the previous research, too.